Glossary

A C E g H L M
A
Archaic (period)

Period of the history of the Greek world, of the 8th century. BC. BC until the medieval wars between the Greeks and the Achaemenid Persians (480 BC). It follows the geometrical period and precedes the classical period.

Asia minor

Western Peninsula of Asia, in present-day Turkey. It was occupied by the Greek cities since the archaic period.

C
Cicero

Roman statesman (106-43 BC), considered one of the greatest Latin authors. He had several personal libraries, which he mentioned in several letters addressed to his friend Atticus

City ​​(greek)

The city is the basic political entity in the Greek world, from the archaic period to the end of antiquity. It is made up of the body of the citizens. Physically, it includes one (or more) urban center (s) -namely asty- and the surrounding countryside, the chôra.

E
Ephebe

The ephebes were young men before they reached adulthood. In Classical Athens, before they could become citizens, they had to follow a 2-year athletic, military and civic training. In the Hellenistic period, the ephebeia was shortened to one year, lost its mandatory characteristic, and was open to non-Athenian notables.

Les éphèbes étaient les jeunes garçons atteignant l’âge adulte. À Athènes à l’époque classique, avant de devenir citoyens, ils suivaient un enseignement athlétique, militaire et civique obligatoire de deux ans. À l’époque hellénistique, l’éphébie est raccourcie à une année, elle perd son caractère obligatoire et s’ouvre à de jeunes notables non athéniens.

g
gymnasiarch

Greek magistrate in charge of the gymnasium.

H
Hellenistic (period)

The period of Hellenized world history, from the conquest of the Achaemenid East by Alexander the Great (in the years 330-320) and until the Roman conquest of the kingdoms which succeeded him (133-31 BC).

Hippodamus of Miletus

5th c. BC Greek engineer and architect from Miletus, on the Ionian coast. He is best known for its town planning activities, especially in his native city Miletus, as well as in Piraeus and possibly Rhodes. The so-called “Hippodamian” plan was organized in a network of orthogonal streets organized around a central area reserved for public activities, the agora. This plan was widely adopted by the new Hellenistic foundations.

L
Lagid (dynasty)

The dynasty originating from Macedon that ruled over Egypt in the Hellenistic period (also known as Ptolemaic dynasty).

 

M
Mycenaean (period)

The mycenaean period extends from 1650 to 1100 BC (with an acme between 1400 and 1200), in continental Greece and the Aegean. Named after the site of Mycenae in Argolis, it is characterized by its writing, B linear, as well as by its cyclopean architecture and its typical pottery.